EVIDENCE – advance ruling as to admissibility of evidence – hearsay evidence – where applicant seeks to tender transcripts of evidence from respondent’s criminal trial – notice of intention to adduce hearsay evidence where maker available to be called – where no written objection to tender – Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), ss 64, 67, 68
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Appeal from conviction – whether trial judge erred in admitting statement by cleaner – where statement details system of work employed by cleaner relevant to when DNA may have been deposited at scene – whether statement made in circumstances that make it highly probably that the statement is reliable: s 65(2)(c) Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) – where related to system regularly repeated and therefore likely to be remembered, where no personal interest in trial, where desire to maintain reputation likely outweighed by inclination to avoid criminal prosecution – s 65(2)(c) does not apply to a statement simply because it was made to a police officer
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Appeal from conviction – whether trial judge erred in admitting statement by cleaner – whether trial judge erred in ruling probative value not outweighed by danger of prejudice: s 137 Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) – where author deceased and therefore unavailable for cross-examination – whether jury would assign undue weight to statement in absence of cross-examination – where statement admitted for limited purpose – where judicial directions and counsel’s address to jury available
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Directions to the Jury – Appeal from conviction – whether trial judge misdirected the jury in relation to unreliability of witness – where witness involved in offence charged – where witness had lied in earlier proceedings – s 165 Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) does not require trial judge to form a view as to unreliability of evidence before directing jury – where trial judge gave further directions at request of appellant, and no further request, indicating adequacy of directions
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Directions to the Jury – Appeal from conviction – whether trial judge misdirected the jury in relation to circumstantial evidence – whether evidence in circumstantial case need to be proved beyond a reasonable doubt – evidence in “strands in the cable” case not necessary to prove individual strands beyond a reasonable doubt, nor necessary that individual strands support guilt – misdescription of case as both direct evidence and circumstantial not misleading – where no request for redirection
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Directions to the Jury – Appeal from conviction – whether trial judge misdirected the jury in relation to statement by cleaner – where misdirection that statement was not hearsay immaterial – where author deceased and therefore unavailable for cross-examination – whether jury should have been warned of unreliability – where warning at discretion of judge – where no basis for unreliability beyond unavailability – where no request for redirection
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Appeal from conviction – whether verdict unsafe and unsatisfactory – where evidence of unreliable witness supported by other evidence in trial – where jury adequately directed – where the evidence was not so lacking in cogency, did not contain such discrepancies or inadequacies, and was not so tainted as to make verdicts of not guilty the only proper verdicts
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – EVIDENCE – Directions to the Jury – Appeal from conviction – where no application under r 5531 Courts Procedures Rules 2006 (ACT) – r 5531 not a formality to be neglected – operation of rule alone sufficient to dispose of appeal grounds alleging misdirection
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – SENTENCE – Appeal from sentence – aggravated robbery and intentionally inflict grievous bodily harm – whether disparity between sentences imposed on appellant and co-offender – where appellant sentenced for two offences and co-offender only one – common elements in offences not a reason to reduce sentence, but a factor in determining concurrency – where appellant was individual who discharged weapon causing grievous bodily harm, not co-offender – where co-offender not sentenced on basis of discharge of firearm – where co-offender pleaded guilty – where subjective circumstances different
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – SENTENCE – Appeal from sentence – whether manifestly excessive – serious example of offending – where offences called for strong general deterrent effect
APPEAL AND NEW TRIAL – SENTENCE – Appeal from sentence – whether trial judge in error in relying on aggravating feature not proved beyond reasonable doubt – where criminal history suggested appellant was at large in breach of bail at committal – where history possibly inconsistent – where no inference available that the appellant had absconded from bail in South Australia – where trial judge made findings of aggravating circumstances, necessary inference is they were taken into account on sentence
EVIDENCE – admissibility – early determination – expert reports – assumptions given to experts – no factual material to support or validate assumptions – whether expert reports admissible
Criminal law – Evidence – Common law – Hearsay – Admissions – Appellant and co-accused jointly tried for murder – Appellant convicted; co-accused acquitted – Co-accused made certain admissions in police interview and to witnesses (“out-of-court confessional statements”) – Consideration of Bannon v The Queen  HCA 27; (1995) 185 CLR 1 – Whether out-of-court confessional statements were admissible in exculpation of appellant as exception to hearsay rule.
Words and phrases – “admissions”, “against penal interest”, “hearsay rule”, “out-of-court confessional statements”.
DEFENCE FORCE DISCIPLINE APPEAL TRIBUNAL
DEFENCE AND WAR – charges of indecency – seven counts of indecency found by General Court Martial –appeal – grounds – prosecutor’s final address at trial prejudicial – direction made by Judge Advocate to jury – any prejudice to appellant negatived – grounds not made out – ruling made by Judge Advocate on objections to charge sheet – provision relied upon said to be unavailable – duplicity alleged – grounds not made out – provision of Crimes Act on consent said not to apply – ground not made out – Judge Advocate said to have erred in pre-trial ruling on the defence’s objection to a member of the panel – application was refused – said to be reasonable grounds for inferring ostensible bias – resulting in wrongful convictions and substantial miscarriage of justice and/or material irregularity – ground not made out – fraudulent misrepresentation of fact said to have occurred – error alleged in Judge Advocate’s directions to panel on whether or not complainant’s consent negatived – ground not made out – convictions said to be inconsistent with acquittals – found – open to panel to conclude to requisite standard that appellant guilty – ground rejected – conviction under Charge 22 said to be unreasonable and/or could not be supported by evidence – ground upheld – Charge 22 quashed – Charge 23 laid as alternative to Charge 22 – evidence supports this charge – conviction recorded and appellant sentenced to severe reprimand – recorded telephone conversation between complainant and appellant said to be inadmissible – Judge Advocate ruled that desirability of admitting evidence outweighed undesirability of admitting it – no error in exercise of discretion – ground not made out – admission of recording of police interview with appellant – part of interview referring to covert recording – admission of this part of interview said to be erroneous – no error found – ground not made out – appellant said offences subject of convictions were indictable offences – entitled to trial by jury – ground dismissed – Tribunal bound by authority requiring rejection of ground
TORTS – negligence – motorcycle accident – whether unidentified vehicle caused plaintiff’s accident
APPEAL – appellate review of findings of fact – whether errors in process of fact-finding – where primary judge rejected plaintiff’s version of accident and accepted independent witness’ account -whether primary judge’s findings glaringly improbable or contrary to compelling inference
EVIDENCE – use of police diagram – whether used impermissibly as direct evidence
EVIDENCE – business record – whether diagram drawn by police officer a “business record” – whether admissible to prove the existence of a fact – ss 59(1) and 68, Evidence Act 1995
INDUSTRIAL LAW – employer and employee – whether interpreters and translators, casual employees or independent contractors – multi-factorial totality test – indicia for distinguishing between an employee and an independent contractor – indicia of a business – indicia as to whose business the activity is performed in and for.
SUPERANNUATION – liability for superannuation guarantee charge – whether employees or independent contractors at common law – whether interpreters and translators were employees within the extended definition of employee in s 12(3) of the Superannuation Guarantee (Administration) Act 1992 (Cth).
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) ss 63(2), 67, 68
 FCA 1306
EVIDENCE – whether hearsay evidence of statements by persons overseas should be permitted – the extent to which the proposed evidence was first hand or more remote hearsay – no independent evidence corroborating any hearsay version – whether undue prejudice to the respondent.
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – application to take evidence by video link – requirement to make out a case for such an order where it is opposed – discussion of the possible difficulties associated with video evidence.
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE – security for costs – consideration of application for further security.
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) ss 59(1), 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 75, 135, 136, 192, 192A
EVIDENCE – affidavits and statutory declarations – affidavits – plaintiff seeks to read affidavit of conversation with person unable to be called as a witness – where plaintiff’s solicitor sent letter to defendant’s solicitors purporting to give notice under (NSW) Evidence Act 1995, s 67 of an intention to adduce evidence of previous representation in reliance on s 64(2) – where notice substantially complied in form with requirements of (NSW) Evidence Regulations 2005, reg 4 – where requisite 21 days prior service not complied with – where there would be potential prejudice from inability to investigate – leave to read affidavit refused
(NSW) Evidence Act 1995, s 64(2), s 67, s 68
EVIDENCE – admissibility and relevancy – exceptions to the hearsay rule – s 63 exception where maker of representation in a document is “not available to give evidence” – meaning of “available” – meaning of “attendance” – where person resident in a foreign country – whether availability of procedures under the Evidence on Commission Act is relevant to these questions – EVIDENCE – admissibility and relevancy – exceptions to the hearsay rule – s 81 exception for previous representation reasonably necessary to an understanding of an admission where the representation made “at the time the admission was made, or shortly before or after that time” – meaning of “shortly after” – WORDS AND PHRASES – “attendance” – “shortly after”
Evidence Act 1995, Part 2 clause 4(1) of the dictionary, ss 36(1), 59, 63, 64(1), 67, 68, 81(1), 81(2), 135(a)
Evidence (Audio and Audio Visual Links) Act 1998, ss 5B, 5C
Evidence on Commission Act 1995, ss 4, 6(1), 5, 8
Foreign Evidence Act 1994 (Cth), s 7
Interpretation Act 1987, s 12(1)(b)
Admissibility of Statements
Evidence Act 1995 (ss 64, 67, 68)