DEFENCE FORCE – appeal from Restricted Court Martial against convictions for committing an act of indecency – circumstantial evidence – whether Judge Advocate erred in failing to give proper direction – admissibility of evidence based on inference drawn by witness from observed facts – whether substantial miscarriage of justice – meaning of “indecency” – appeal allowed – conviction quashed – retrial ordered
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Victorian Civil & Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) – Appeal – Leave to appeal – Question of law – Whether findings of fact – Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal Act 1998, s 148(1)(a).
MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS – Complaint – Medical Board – Matters referred to VCAT under Health Practitioner Regulation National Law (Victoria) Act 2009 of professional misconduct and unprofessional conduct – Procedural fairness – Whether findings open.
EVIDENCE – admissibility – early determination – expert reports – assumptions given to experts – no factual material to support or validate assumptions – whether expert reports admissible
CRIMINAL LAW – Application for leave to appeal against conviction – One charge of buggery with a child under 14 years and five charges of buggery – Offences committed over 40 years ago – Whether trial judge erred in directing the jury they could use hearsay evidence adverse to the applicant adduced in cross examination of the informant – Whether trial miscarried because of failure correctly to direct the jury about the use to be made of a false Crown theory of defence tactics never adopted by the applicant – Whether verdicts unsafe – Leave to appeal granted and appeal allowed.
CRIMINAL LAW – jurisdiction, practice and procedure – ex parte application to publish evidence of a witness examined by the Australian Crime Commission – application to publish evidence to the accused – where examinee before the Commission not the accused – Australian Crime Commission Act 2002 (Cth) s 25A – factors to consider – interests of justice – safety and reputation of examinee – nature of offences – procedural uncertainty –examinee to be given an opportunity to be heard – application adjourned.
CRIMINAL LAW – Appeal against conviction – Rape – Incest – Whether the verdict on the charge of rape was unsafe and unsatisfactory – No direction required as to whether the accused believed that the complainant was consenting – Whether the complainant gave free agreement – Temporal gap between the complainant’s objection to penetration and the time of penetration left unexplored – Prosecutor failed to ask complainant whether penetration was without consent – Trial judge’s directions on the evidence as to the question of consent inadequate – Sections 37 and 37AAA of the Sentencing Act 1991 – Appeal allowed on the charge of rape – Appellant convicted of alternative charge of incest – Appeal otherwise dismissed.
CRIMINAL LAW – Evidence – Rule against hearsay – Complaint evidence – Prior representations of complaint evidence led as an exception to the hearsay rule – Substantial time delay between the asserted facts and the dates on which the representations were made – Trial judge limited the use of the evidence under s 136 to buttressing credibility only – Need to comply with statutory pre-conditions under exception to credibility rule – Whether the asserted facts were ‘fresh in the memory’ of the complainant – Sections 66, 108, 136, 137 and 192 of the Evidence Act 2008 – XY v The Queen  NSWCCA 181 referred to – Papakosmas v The Queen (1999) 196 CLR 29 considered – Appeal dismissed.
CRIMINAL LAW – Appeal against sentence – Manifest excess – Appellant re-sentenced because of the successful appeal against sentence – Sentence not manifestly excessive.
CRIMINAL LAW – Appeal against sentence – Child pornography – Manifest excess – Parity – Sentencing discretion re-opened – Appellant re-sentenced.
CRIMINAL LAW – leave to appeal against interlocutory order – public interest immunity – application for production of a document disclosing confidential police informer – balancing exercise – common law applied – whether disclosure of identity of informer would assist accused in defence – relevance of potential consequences to informer if identity disclosed – claim to immunity from production upheld
APPLICATION – seeking leave to appeal out of time against convictions imposed in the Magistrates Court – no acceptable reason for delay – application refused
APPLICATION – seeking leave to appeal out of time against orders from a single judge of the Supreme Court – no demonstrable error argued – application refused
CRIMINAL LAW – trial by judge alone – incest – act of indecency – assault – alternative count of maintaining a sexual relationship with a young person – admissibility of statement of deceased mother of complainant – admissibility of evidence of other sexual activity of complainant – accused guilty on five counts – alternative count not considered.
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) ss 51(1), 62(1), 65(2), 66(2), 108, 142(1)
CRIMINAL LAW – Appeal against conviction – Direction as to complaint evidence – Whether direction undermined defence case – Whether direction precluded an interpretation consistent with innocence – Application for leave refused.
CRIMINAL LAW – trial by judge alone – charge of trafficking in a controlled drug other than cannabis – accused is guilty.
EVIDENCE – admissibility and relevancy – hearsay – whether records of telephone calls inadmissible as hearsay – admissible as admissions of accused – other party’s conversation not admitted for truth of representation.
EVIDENCE – admissibility and relevancy – tendency evidence – no notice given in time – whether prosecution should be permitted to rely on evidence – substance given well before trial – evidence admitted.
EVIDENCE – admissibility and relevancy – tendency evidence – whether of significant probative value – whether significant probative value outweighs unfair prejudice – evidence admissible.
CRIMINAL LAW – evidence – res gestae – whether doctrine survives enactment of Evidence Act 1995 (Cth).
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), ss 59, 66, 67, 97, 100, 101, 137, Pt 3.4
CRIMINAL LAW – Murder trial – Evidence – Hearsay – Evidence Act s 66(2) – Evidence excluded – Evidence Act s 135(b), (c).
Criminal law – Conviction – Whether submissions of counsel for Crown or judge’s comment infringed s 20(3), Evidence Act 2008 – Motive to lie – Whether Palmer direction (Palmer v The Queen  HCA 2; (1998) 193 CLR 1) necessary – Whether evidence of representation under s 66(2)(b), Evidence Act 2008 admissible – Application for leave to appeal refused.
Criminal law – Sentence – Sexual offences committed on four occasions when applicant aged a little over 14 and aged 17 – Circumstances of offending evidenced applicant’s immaturity – Long delay between last offending and complaint – Sentence imposed some 16 years following offences – No subsequent offences – Strong evidence of rehabilitation – Appeal upheld – Appellant re-sentenced.
R v Boland  VSCA 242; (2007) 17 VR 300 applied.
CRIMINAL LAW – conviction appeals – joint trials of Appellants – all Appellants convicted of two murders (Lawford Street shooting) – firearm attack on suburban house from street – two occupants (Ziad Razzak and Mervat Nemra) killed – joint criminal enterprise – alleged to be part of feud between two groups – one Appellant (Darwiche) convicted at same trial of earlier offences of maliciously discharge loaded firearm with intent to cause grievous bodily harm (to Bilal Razzak) and shoot at a person (Farouk Razzak) with intent to murder (Yanderra Street shooting) – these offences also alleged to be part of feud – jury unable to agree upon verdict on further count against Darwiche of murder (of Ali Abdul Razzak) APPEAL – grounds by all Appellants claiming prejudice and a miscarriage of justice flowing from joint trial – no error in decision to hold joint trial of all Appellants for Lawford Street shootings – no error in decision to try Darwiche in same joint trial for earlier alleged shooting offences said to be part of feud – appropriate directions given to jury concerning use of evidence against each Appellant – jury reached verdicts impartially on evidence and in accordance with trial judge’s directions – no miscarriage of justice resulting from joint trial APPEAL – grounds challenging direction that evidence of one indemnified witness could support evidence of another indemnified witness – no error in direction APPEAL – claim by Darwiche that it was abuse of process for prosecution case to be based upon evidence of indemnified witnesses who received benefits – no application made at trial for stay on this basis – no proper basis for stay in any event – assessment of credibility and reliability of witnesses part of jury’s function – all evidence concerning indemnities and benefits placed before the jury – no miscarriage of justice APPEAL – grounds contending error in various respects during trial – no error demonstrated – no miscarriage of justice APPEAL – applications by two Appellants (Darwiche and El-Zeyat) for leave to add further grounds of appeal after hearing of appeal but before judgment delivered – suggested fresh evidence – approach to determination of application for leave – assessment of suggested fresh evidence – whether fresh and credible – whether likely in the context of the trial to cause jury to entertain a reasonable doubt about guilt of Darwiche or El-Zeyat – no miscarriage of justice – leave to add grounds refused
Criminal Law – direction by trial judge that jury could look for independent support for the evidence of one indemnified witness in the evidence of another indemnified witness – evidence of comfit identification – fresh evidence – failure by prosecution to disclose to defence material relevant to credibility of Crown witness.
Evidence Act (NSW) – ss 38, 59, 66(2), 106, 114, 115(5), 137, 164, 165
CRIMINAL LAW – trial by judge alone –threaten to cause a detriment to a person with the intention that the other person would not attend as a witness in a legal proceeding – finding of guilt – no matter of principle.
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), ss 60, 65, 66
CRIMINAL LAW – Conviction – Three counts of committing an indecent act with a child under 16 years – Complainant subject to persistent sexual abuse by applicant’s brother – Identifying witness was familiar with the applicant – Whether need for full direction as to unreliability of identification evidence – Whether identification warning undermined by trial judge’s comments – Delay in making complaint – Counsel wrongly prohibited from cross-examining or addressing the jury as to delay – s 61 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) – Prior representations by complainant as to the alleged conduct of the applicant – Representations inconsistent with complainant’s account – Error to admit – s 41D Evidence Act 1958 (Vic) – s 66 Uniform Evidence Act considered – Relevance of lapse of time between the alleged offending and the making of the representation – Representation admitted only as going to the complainant’s credibility and not as proof of the truth of the facts asserted – Failure to warn jury that not original evidence – Misdirection – Appeal allowed – Retrial ordered
CRIMINAL LAW – Attorney-General’s reference – principles – reference limited to points of law arising in relation to the trial – question referred must be phrased with sufficient precision or appropriately for the Court to hear and decide – s 37S Supreme Court Act 1933 (ACT)
CRIMINAL LAW – offences of sexual intercourse without consent and statutory indecency – mens rea expressed as knowledge or recklessness – whether one or two offences depending on accused’s knowledge or recklessness – primary judge required Crown to elect between knowledge and recklessness on charges on an indictment for offences against ss 54 and 60 of the Crimes Act 1900 (ACT) – whether charge framed in terms of knowledge and recklessness duplicitous
Held: only one offence created – Crown need not elect between knowledge and recklessness
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) s 66(2)
PRACTICE AND PROCEUDRE – s 40F Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1991 (ACT) – admission of audiovisual evidence of child sexual or physical assault complainants as evidence.
EVIDENCE – admissibility of audiovisual interview recording between child complainant and police officers recorded prior to commencement of s 40F of the Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1991 (ACT).
STATUTORY INTERPRETATION – whether s 40F of the Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1991 (ACT) gives prospective effect to facts or has retrospective operation – provisions give prospective operation to facts.
STATUTORY INTERPRETATION – whether Div 4.2A of the Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1991 (ACT) is inconsistent with the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) – intention of legislature and context within which legislation operates – no inconsistency between the statutes.
Human Rights Act 2004 (ACT), s 22(2)(g)
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), Pt 2.1, ss 4(5),(6), 8, 26, 66
CRIMINAL LAW: Crown appeal against interlocutory order rejecting evidence – Principles applicable – rejection of complaint evidence in child sexual assault case – error in construction of s 66 of Evidence Act – meaning of phrase “fresh in the memory” – history of “recent complaint” doctrine – enactment of s 66(2) of Evidence Act – Reasons underlying amendment – Proper approach to construction of s 66(2) and (2A) Evidence Act – Power of Court of Criminal Appeal where error demonstrated.
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW — The non-judicial organs of Government — The legislature — Legislation and legislative powers — Legislative powers — Power to act contrary to separation of powers doctrine — Constitution, Ch III — State Act creating crime — Retrospective effect — Whether jurisdiction conferred upon State Supreme Court incompatible with Ch III.
CRIMINAL LAW — Evidence — Judicial discretion to admit or exclude evidence — Evidence unfair to admit or improperly obtained — Generally — Unreliability — Whether a discretion to reject unreliable evidence.
CRIMINAL LAW — Evidence — Complaints — Admissibility of details and fact of complaint — Sexual offences — Evidence of how complainant came to make complaint many years after — Whether excluded by hearsay rule — Whether fresh in the witness’s memory — Whether inadmissible under credibility rule.
CRIMINAL LAW — Evidence — Evidentiary matters relating to witnesses and accused persons — Character and previous convictions — Evidence of good character — Desirability of direction as to.
CRIMINAL LAW — Evidence — Miscellaneous matters — Other cases — Sexual crimes against children — Evidence by psychiatrist of tendency of victims not to complain — Evidence of tendency of victims to suffer psychological damage — Evidence not specific to the complainant — Whether relevant or admissible.
CRIMINAL LAW — Jurisdiction, practice and procedure — Course of evidence, statements and addresses — Addresses — Contents — Duty of counsel for prosecution — Whether comments excessive or prejudicial — Expression of counsel’s own views of evidence — Comments minimising effect of Longman warning.
EVIDENCE — Facts excluded from proof — On grounds of privilege — Professional confidence — Communication with counsellor — Whether evidence of treatment excluded.
(TAS) Evidence Act 2001 ss 59, 66 and 102
(TAS) Evidence Act 2001 s 79A
(TAS) Evidence Act 2001 s 127B
CRIMINAL LAW – evidence – the ‘credibility rule’ – exception to credibility rule – re-establishing credit – prior consistent statement – question of admissibility of prior consistent statement to support or establish credit – trial judge held prior consistent statement would not help in determining whether evidence arrived at by reconstruction or suggestion – whether trial judge erred in refusing tender of statement
CRIMINAL LAW – sentencing – parity – appellant’s criminality of a lower objective seriousness – co-accused three years younger and of limited intellect – whether trial judge erred in imposing sentence
CRIMINAL LAW – sentencing – date of commencement of sentence – pre-sentence custody – custody not exclusively referable to sentence being passed – appellant serving sentence for other offences – whether trial judge failed to give credit for time in custody
Evidence Act 1995 ss 66, 102, 108(3)(b), 192
[This decision seems to have been removed. It can still be located at LexisNexis]
CRIMINAL LAW – trial by judge alone – attempt to engage in sexual intercourse without consent – act of indecency without consent – Crown case entirely dependent on complainant’s evidence – sworn denials of accused – good character evidence – not necessary for a verdict of acquittal that accused’s account is truthful – finding of not guilty entered
EVIDENCE – whether to give a Prasad direction due to insufficient evidence – some discrepancies in complainant’s evidence – complainant a truthful witness – conduct of complainant following attack highly persuasive of its occurrence – request for a Prasad direction denied
EVIDENCE – complainant’s evidence not regarded as unreliable – no serious inconsistencies in the complainant’s evidence such as to have an adverse effect – multiple complaints from the same source have no enhanced evidentiary value – evidence of good character of accused – evidence of flight from the scene not an unequivocal consciousness of guilt
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), ss 66,102, 108, 164, 165
CRIMINAL LAW – trial by Judge alone – act of indecency upon person under age of 16 years.
CRIMINAL LAW – evidence – hearsay evidence – admissibility under Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) – out of court representation to police officer – representation as to kind of evidence witness could give in trial – content and purpose of representation – evidence inadmissible – Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), s 66(3).
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), s 60, s 66
Criminal Law – Appeal and New Trial – rule 4 – objection not taken to evidence – whether judge should have rejected evidence relying upon s 137 of Evidence Act – whether evidence prejudicial – Summing Up – whether judge failed to warn jury against tendency reasoning – Evidence – scope of s 137, whether requires judge to reject evidence where objection not taken – Sentencing – Malicious wounding and child abduction – whether sentences manifestly excessive.
Evidence Act 1995 – ss 41, 66, 116, 130, 137
aggravated indecent assault
appeal against conviction
admissibility of evidence
Evidence Act credibility rule
evidence of a prior consistent statement
circumstances leading to statement
directions on complaint and delay
Evidence Act 1995, s66, s102, s108(3)(b), s136, s192
Appeal against conviction
Whether the trial judge erred in admitting evidence of the complainant’s distressed condition; uncharged acts not complained of; pre-text telephone conversations and email messages
Incorrect directions to jury
Miscarriage of justice
CRIMINAL LAW – Evidence
CRIMINAL LAW – Summing-up
Who to believe
EVIDENCE – Sexual assault
Evidence Act 1995, ss 165, 59, 66, 108(3)
Criminal Law – sexual offences – delay in complaint – whether warnings and directions adequate – verdicts unsafe.
Evidence Act 1995 – ss 60, 66(2), 102, 108(3)
appeal against conviction
principles relating to the exclusion of or limiting the use of evidence for “unfair prejudice” pursuant to ss 136 & 137 of the Evidence Act 1995
whether trial judge was bound to do so of his own motion
otherwise, no question of principle
Evidence Act 1995, s66, s136, s137, s165
Criminal Law and Procedure
Witness to Act of Identification from Photographs
Identifier Declining to Affirm Previous Act
Evidence by Observer
Hearsay at Common Law and by Statutory Definition
Possible Statutory Exception
Quality of Identifying or Similarity Testimony
Separate Trials of Co-Accused
Photographic Selection for Identifying Purposes
Fairness of Selection
Discretion to Order New Trial
CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE
DENIAL BY ACCUSED WHEN CONFRONTED BY POLICE WITH ALLEGATION
DENIAL MAINTAINED AT VIDEO RECORDED INTERVIEW HELD SHORTLY THEREAFTER
OBJECTION BY CROWN TO ADMISSION OF EXCULPATORY MATERIAL
BASIS OF EXCEPTION TO HEARSAY RULE
MAINTENANCE OF COMMON PRACTICE
GENERAL DUTY OF CROWN TO TENDER SUBJECT TO OBJECTIONABILITY OF CONTRIVED MATERIAL
ACCUSED GIVES EVIDENCE FOLLOWING RULING REQUIRING HIM TO DO SO IN ORDER TO MAKE EARLIER DENIALS ADMISSIBLE
RULING ERRONEOUS BUT NO RESULTANT MISCARRIAGE
DISCUSSION OF VARIETY OF APPROACHES TO EVIDENCE OF EXCULPATORY STATEMENTS
TRIAL JUDGE MISINFORMED AS TO APPLICABLE MAXIMUM PENALTY
IMPOSITIONS IN EXCESS OF MAXIMUM
APPEAL AGAINST SENTENCE ALLOWED AND APPELLANT RESENTENCED
s59 Evidence Act 1995
Criminal Law – Summing up – warning to jury under s 165 of the Evidence Act – evidence of a ‘kind’ that may be unreliable
Evidence Act 1995 – ss 38, 66, 108(3), 116(1) 164, 165
Complaint of sexual offence – prior consistent statement – leave for admission on credibility only – suggestion of fabrication not made by mere denial – such suggestion should be expressly put – criteria for leave – criteria for exercise of discretion – criteria for waiver of the necessity for leave.
CRIMINAL LAW – Appeal – Against Conviction – s86(2)(b) of the Crimes Act 1900 – Detaining victim with intent to obtain advantage – Whether verdict unreasonable – Whether a circumstantial case on intent requires particulars of sexual intercourse to be separately supported by separate evidence
CRIMINAL LAW – Practice and Procedure – Whether complaint evidence properly admitted – Purpose for which evidence from a victim of attempted sexual assault as to what s/he believed was happening is admissible
Evidence Act 1995: s136, s76, s78, s60, s66
EVIDENCE – sexual assault – complaint evidence – delay in making – justifiability of – where complainant’s mother and offender in business relationship – where complainant and mother boarding in offender’s home
EVIDENCE – sexual assault – complaint evidence – delay in making – complainant told mother 66 days after event – whether “fresh in the memory” under s 66 Evidence Act 1995
EVIDENCE – sexual assault – complaint evidence – where “vague” or lacking clear element of complaint – probative value not outweighed by prejudice where evidence has corroborative value
DIRECTIONS TO JURY – introductory directions as to respective roles of the Crown, defence and jury – whether stressed too significant an association between the Crown and the community – whether stressed too significant an association between jury and the community – whether amounted to saying that the Crown and jury “on the same side” – whether distinguished the Crown’s approach to the evidence as scrupulously fair as against the defence (D)
appeal against conviction
maliciously inflicting grievous bodily harm
assault occasioning actual bodily harm
admission of evidence over objection
statement tendered at trial pursuant to s65(2)(b) and (c) of Evidence Act 1995
maker of statement unavailable to give evidence
objection taken on grounds of late notice and discretionary factors
no separate objection to content of evidence
whole of statement admitted
whether trial judge erred in admitting statement
- whether trial judge failed adequately to warn jury of the danger of relying on the evidence of the statement
directions to jury adequate to draw attention to any potential unreliability of statement, including those parts now held to have been inadmissible
hearsay provisions of the Evidence Act
exceptions to the hearsay rule
identification of previous representation
identification of what fact was intended to be asserted by previous representation
evidence of out of court representation by one person cannot be given by out of court representation of another person
evidence of previous representations inadmissible
effect of admission of inadmissible evidence of previous representation
Criminal Appeal Rules, rule 4
whether appellant requires leave before being permitted to argue admissibility of previous representations as a ground of appeal
Criminal Procedure Act s68, s289
appellant waived right to committal hearing
proviso to s6 of the Criminal Appeal Act
admission of the inadmissible evidence would and should have had no significance in verdict
evidence properly admitted proves beyond reasonable doubt guilt of the offence
Evidence Act 1995 s55, s56, s59, s60, s62, s65, s66, s67, s81, s82, s135, s137, s165, s192
appeal against conviction
four occasions of sexual conduct in relation to a child
judge’s directions to jury
whether summing up lacked balance and objectivity
whether trial judge unfairly bolstered child complainant’s evidence and Crown case
whether trial judge erred in admitting evidence of complaint
“fresh in the memory” requirement
whether trial judge erred in his direction on the Markuleski principle
application for leave to appeal against sentence
whether the applicant being held in custody with more onerous conditions constitutes special circumstances
rehabilitation of sexual offenders
whether sentence manifestly excessive
A Note to Section 66(2A) states “Subsection (2A) was inserted as a response to the decision of the High Court of Australia in Graham v The Queen (1998) 195 CLR 606.”
Criminal Law – Evidence – Hearsay – Exception to Hearsay Rule – Complaint of sexual assault – Prior complaint evidence – Whether complaint made when facts “fresh in the memory” of complainant.
Criminal Law – Evidence – Credibility – Exception to Credibility Rule – Whether evidence fabricated – Discretion to admit prior consistent statement – Factors affecting discretion.
Words and Phrases – “fresh in the memory”.
Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), ss 66, 108, 192.
Criminal Law – Evidence – Identification – Out of court identification by photographs provided by police – Admissibility – Witness unable to recall the person he identified out of court – Admissibility of evidence of observer of out of court identification by other witness.
Criminal Law – Appeal and new trial – Particular grounds of appeal – Inconsistent verdicts – Sexual crimes – Conviction on first count, acquittal on all others – Stronger corroborative evidence on first count.
MacKenzie v R  HCA 35; (1996) 190 CLR 348; MFA v R  HCA 53; (2002) 213 CLR 606, applied.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
Magistrates – Appeals from and control over magistrates – Tasmania – Motion to review – The hearing – Generally – Erroneous exclusion of evidence – Substantial miscarriage of justice.
Justices Act 1959 (Tas), s110(2)(ab).
Gregory v R  HCA 24; (1983) 151 CLR 566; Nudd v R  HCA 9, referred to.
Aust Dig Magistrates 
Criminal Law – Evidence – Evidentiary matters relating to witnesses and accused persons – Unsworn statements and comment on failure to give sworn evidence – Comment – By judge – Other cases – Absence of direction about accused not having given evidence – Videotapes and transcripts of comprehensive police interviews in evidence – Whether miscarriage of justice.
Azzopardi v R  HCA 25; (2001) 205 CLR 50; R v OGD (1997) 45 NSWLR 744; Richards  NSWCCA 38; (2002) 128 A Crim R 204, considered.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
Criminal Law – Evidence – Evidentiary matters relating to witnesses and accused persons – Impeachment of credit and admissibility of evidence as to credit – Prior inconsistent statements – Evidence in contradiction – Leave to cross-examine.
Evidence Act 2001 (Tas), ss38(1)(c), 66, 192.
Esposito (1998) 105 A Crim R 27, approved.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
CRIMINAL LAW – appeals – appeal against conviction – leave to appeal against sentence – sufficiency of directions concerning child complainant’s evidence of sexual assault – sufficiency of directions concerning appellant’s election not to give evidence – unsafe and unsatisfactory verdict.
Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) ss 165, 66, 20
length of jury deliberations
unsafe and unreasonable verdicts
Evidence Act (leave to cross-examine under s38)
Evidence Act, 1995 , s38, s60, s66, s135, s137, s192
CRIMINAL LAW – evidence – claim of right – whether judge erred in striking out as irrelevant part of Crown witness’ testimony favourable to defendant’s claim – whether judge erred in not allowing defendant to cross-examine on evidence that was struck out – EVIDENCE – hearsay – whether evidence admissible at common law as a prior consistent statement – whether admissible under s 65 or s 66 of the Evidence Act 1995 – where evidence admissible under s 66 of the Evidence Act – where evidence not significant – whether exclusion gave rise to a miscarriage of justice – EVIDENCE ACT – whether trial judge erred in making appellant aware in the presence of a jury the effects of s 128 of the Act – whether trial judge contravened s 132 of the Act – CRIMINAL TRIAL – forensic tactics – where Crown used s 38 of the Evidence Act as a forensic device – whether unfair or improper advantage – whether abuse of section – whether judge’s failure to refer to s 192 of the Evidence Act an error of law – where Crown case is strong – whether cumulative effect of errors result in a lost chance of defendant being acquitted – Criminal Appeal Act 1912 s 6(1) – appeal dismissed.
Evidence Act 1995 , ss 38, 65, 66, 128, 132, 192(2)
CRIMINAL LAW – Co-incidence evidence – adequacy of directions to jury; Recognition evidence – admissibility of out of court recognition from photos – Crown witnesses’ evidence unfavourable
statement by co-offender
whether made pursuant to common purpose
Evidence Act 1995 , ss 65, 66, 87
prior consistent statement
Credibility rule 15 108