CRIMINAL LAW – EVIDENCE – witness – examination in chief – whether leave should be granted for a witness to revive his memory by reference to a document – evidence highly probative
CRIMINAL LAW – EVIDENCE – examination in chief of witness – whether a police officer giving evidence should be permitted to read from his written statement – Evidence Act s 33 – whether written statement was made “soon after the occurrence of the events to which it refers”
EVIDENCE – witness – use of document to revive memory or witness – document contemporaneous to relevant events – revival in conference
CRIMINAL LAW – CONVICTION APPEAL – theft assault and robbery convictions – appellant self-represented – whether hearsay evidence wrongfully admitted – whether Crown address caused miscarriage of justice – whether miscarriage of justice as a result of directions by trial judge – whether fresh evidence should be admitted on appeal – whether miscarriage of justice occurred as the result of conduct by appellant’s counsel – whether revocation of bail during trial caused miscarriage of justice – whether jury verdict unreasonable – SENTENCE APPEAL – whether sentencing judge erred in assessment of objective seriousness – whether principle of totality applied – whether sentence manifestly excessive.
CRIMINAL − Appeal by Director of Public Prosecutions − Criminal Procedure Act 2009 s 291 − Respondent pleaded guilty to attempting to possess precursor chemical − 15 months’ imprisonment wholly suspended and fine of $17,000 − Breach of undertaking to give evidence against co-offenders − Parity − Co-offender sentenced to 15 months’ imprisonment (12 months suspended) − Sentence based on erroneous factual basis − Appeal allowed − Respondent re-sentenced.
CRIMINAL LAW – Murder trial – Evidence – Witness unable to recall events described in her witness statement – Application by prosecution that witness be permitted to read statement to jury – Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) s 32(3).
1 The decision which the appellants seek to challenge was a judgment by an experienced judge delivered after a trial of the action over seven days. His Honour canvassed the evidence called by the parties in detail and at length. His Honour addressed each of the contentions advanced on the appellants’ behalf and rendered a clear and comprehensive judgment against the appellants on each issue raised for his determination.
Criminal Law – Procedure – Witnesses – Powers of judge – Presence of witnesses in court before giving evidence – Discretion – Unrepresented accused wishing witness to act as McKenzie friend.
Moore v Lambeth County Court Registrar  1 All ER 782; Tomlinson v Tomlinson  1 All ER 593; R v Bassett  VLR 535; R v Tait  VR 520, referred to.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
Criminal Law – Appeal and new trial – Miscarriage of justice – Particular circumstances amounting to miscarriage – Other irregularities – Unrepresented accused – Procedural determinations made without inviting submissions – Failure to advise as to rights of parties to address jury.
MacPherson v R  HCA 46; (1981) 147 CLR 512, applied.
R v Coman  VLR 289, not followed.
R v Andrews (1938) 27 Cr App R 12; R v Nilson  VR 853; Dietrich v R  HCA 57; (1991) 177 CLR 292; Black v Smith (1984) 30 NTR 29; Abram v Bank of New Zealand (1996) 18 ATPR 41-507; Pezos v Police  SASC 500; (2005) 94 SASR 154; Tomasevic v Travaglini  VSC 337; (2007) 17 VR 100, referred to.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
Criminal Law – Appeal and new trial – Verdict unreasonable or insupportable having regard to evidence – Appeal allowed – Evidence displaying inadequacy and lacking probative force – Possession of child exploitation material – Inadequate evidence of knowledge by accused that material was in his custody.
Chidiac v R  HCA 4; (1991) 171 CLR 432; M v R  HCA 63; (1994) 181 CLR 487, applied.
Aust Dig Criminal Law 
DEFAMATION – QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE – process to determine whether occasion of qualified privilege at common law – onus of proof in relation to malice – whether lack of honest belief in truth of matter complained of on its own establishes malice to defeat qualified privilege at common law
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – departure prohibition order made under s 72D of Child Support (Registration and Collection) Act 1988 (Cth) by Child Support Registrar – whether order valid – whether Registrar obliged to afford procedural fairness by giving an opportunity to be heard where Registrar had received a “tip off” from an anonymous telephone caller that the person was about to leave Australia – whether failure by Registrar to notify person that order had been made, as Registrar was required to do by s 72G of Act, was a failure to accord procedural fairness that rendered order invalid – whether Registrar failed to give such notice. Held: In each case, No.
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW – whether Pt VA of Child Support (Registration and Collection) Act 1988 (Cth) invalid as conferring the judicial power of the Commonwealth on Child Support Registrar – Child Support Registrar was empowered to make departure prohibition order prohibiting a person from departing from Australia for a foreign country if, inter alia, the person had a child support liability and had not made arrangements satisfactory to the Registrar for the child support liability to be wholly discharged – consideration of factors indicative of “judicial power”. Held: Pt VA does not confer judicial power on Child Support Registrar.
EVIDENCE – s 32 of Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) – deponents of affidavits refreshing their memories from contemporaneous notes for the purposes of making their affidavits, and attaching a copy of the notes to the affidavits – whether affidavits rendered inadmissible by s 32 because the court had not given leave for the witness to use the notes to try to revive his or her memory – whether s 32 applied to affidavits made out of court and in contemplation of the hearing. Held: No – s 32 applies only to evidence given in court.
TORT – False Imprisonment – person intending to catch international flight detained in departure hall at airport because of departure prohibition order made in respect of him by Child Support Registrar under s 72D of Child Support (Registration and Collection) Act 1988 (Cth) – intending passenger could have abandoned attempt to depart and retreated out of airport’s departure hall – whether avenue of egress reasonable – statutory defence available to officials who had prevented intending passenger from catching international flight because departure prohibition order made by Child Support Registrar was in force in respect of him – s 72U of Act permitted authorised officers in certain circumstances to prevent person’s departure from Australia. Held: “imprisonment” not established because reasonable egress available and, in any event, statutory defence established.
TORT – interference with contractual relations by unlawful means – person intending to depart Australia by plane to perform contract overseas – departure prohibition order made by Child Support Registrar under s 72D of Child Support (Registration and Collection) Act 1988 (Cth) was in force in respect of him – Customs officers questioned him – Australian Federal Police officers told him he could not fly – mental element of the tort in circumstances in which the respondents are public officials – whether state of mind required for this tort is different from that required for the tort of misfeasance in pubic office. Held: No.
Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) Act ss 32, 34, 52
EVIDENCE – Affidavit – Applicability of Evidence Act – Evidence about advice from solicitor given by annexing solicitor’s file note and commenting on it – Whether admissible.
Evidence Act 1995 ss.9, 11, 32, 34, 52
CRIMINAL LAW – Accused convicted of murder – Appeal against conviction – Whether trial Judge erred in her directions to the jury on: lies as evidence of consciousness of guilt; circumstantial evidence; motive; accessorial liability – Whether trial Judge should have warned the jury with respect to particular evidence – Whether trial judge erred in permitting cross-examination of particular witness – Whether trial Judge erred in admitting particular evidence – Whether trial Judge erred in her directions to the jruy on the meaning of an unsworn statement – Appeal agaisnt sentencing – Whether trial judge should have imposed a lesser sentence on the basis that the accused’s liberty had been affected over a length of time due to the circumstances of the case.
Evidence Act, ss 32(2)(b)(i), 38, 55, 137, 165, 192
EVIDENCE – proof of contents of a document by tendering a summary or extract and by oral evidence by a witness who saw the document – use by a witness of a document made by another person to revive memory.
Evidence Act 1995, ss 32(2) & 48(4)(a)(b)
CRIMINAL LAW – appeal – miscarriage of justice – competence of counsel – failure of counsel to object to irrelevant and prejudicial evidence – evidence that portrayed appellant as violent, sexually predatory and a child molester – failure of counsel to seek direction from trial judge in relation to prejudicial evidence – whether omissions were a tactical decision of defence counsel – failure of trial judge to apply the Evidence Act 1995 , s 137 – failure to trial judge to direct jury in respect of irrelevant and prejudicial evidence – denial of fair trial amounted to miscarriage of justice – unsafe and unsatisfactory verdict – new trial ordered
Evidence Act 1995 , ss 32, 33, 55, 97, 100, 110
DEFAMATION – justification – substantial truth
DEFAMATION – qualified privilege – reasonableness – ‘Lange’ defence – malice – reckless indifference – lack of honest belief – improper motive
DEFAMATION – damages – harm to reputation – lifestyle – injury to feelings – plaintiff not giving evidence
DEFAMATION – damages – psychiatric injury
DEFAMATION – exemplary damages
APPEAL – credit based findings – ‘Abalos’ principle
STANDARD OF PROOF – civil case – grave allegations – evidence act s140
INDENTIFICATION EVIDENCE – civil case
CORROBORATION – civil case – allegations of criminal conduct
ADMISSION BY CONDUCT – interfering with witnesses – lies
COSTS – offer of compromise in defamation case – interest
Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) ss 32, 48, 135, 140, 164(1), 165
Stated case – Justices Act 1902 – amendment – questions of fact – questions of law
EVIDENCE  – Witnesses – Refreshing memory – Generally – Documents used to revive memory – Memory revised before swearing affidavits read in evidence – Whether production required under Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) s 34 – Memory revived from part of privileged document – Rest of document not relevant to witness’ testimony – Whether production of whole document should be required under s 34.
Evidence Act 1995 ss 32, 33, 34, 35, 36